# Methods for Simulating Lattices

This article will give you an overview of the various methods of simulating lattice structures in nTop Platform, going over the pros and cons of each method with a basic workflow mentioned below.

Type Pros Cons
• Accuracy
• Edge effects considered
• Locatable maximum stress point
• Computationally expensive
• Requires meshing of the lattice (challenging)
• Dependent on mesh quality
• Large file size
• Fastest
• Accepts field-driven beam thickness
• Only works on beam-based lattice structures
• No edge effects
• No stress concentrations
• Faster
• Works for any type of lattice
• Works on large and high-density lattice structures
• More setup steps
• Least accurate
• No edge effects
• No stress concentrations
• Lattice must be uniform

## Solid Elements

Solid elements are a volumetric finite element mesh of the entire lattice structure.

• Small mesh size is required to capture the detail of the lattice

Set up an FE Solid Component block in the FE Model. Depending on the model, some mesh errors may occur. Follow these steps if so:

• Use Remesh Surface block after Mesh from Implicit Body
• Volume Mesh block may fail, if so, you can repair the mesh through Voxel Grid from Implicit and Remesh Surface or use the slower, more robust, Robust Tetrahedral Mesh

## Beam Elements

Beam elements are finite element nodes along lattice vertices, connected by lattice beams.

• Greatly reduced number of elements

Set up an FE Lattice Component in FE Model. Keep in mind the lattice beam thickness is a field input in the FE Lattice Component block. You will need to correctly isolate and trim the lattice elements.

• Use Trim Lattice to make sure the lattice elements lie within the volume of the Lattice Structure
• If you get a warning about short lattice beams, use Collapse Lattice Vertices with a threshold much lower than the unit cell size

## Homogenization

To create a homogenized simulation, run a Solid FEA simulation on a single unit cell of the lattice, and generate effective material properties of the unit cell. Next, run a second Solid FEA simulation on the bulk lattice structure volume using the effective material properties (from the first simulation).

Use FE Solid Component with the Material chip from the Homogenization block.

• Works best with many unit cells
• Good for comparing different lattice types

Check out this nTop Live and example file for more on Homogenization.

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